of the State of Kosrae has decided to use its best efforts to protect, as far
as possible, the people, the state infrastructure and the state economy from
the effects of disasters of all kinds.
It pursuit of this, the Government of the State of Kosrae has set forth
the following policies:
Introduce and maintain a disaster plan for the State of
Kosrae to cover preparedness, response, relief and recovery measures.
Encourage the concept of preparedness and self-reliance
at the state and local Government levels throughout communities.
Take necessary support measures in terms of public
awareness and education, and appropriate training programs.
Utilize to optimum effect the resources of the local
and state Government to cope with disasters.
The Governor of the state of Kosrae is responsible for
making such provisions as may be reasonable and necessary for the security of
the State including these measures required to mitigate the effects of
Direction and control of disaster response operations
at the State & Local government levels is the responsibility of the
B. Disaster Threats
threats to the State of Kosrae and its municipalities comprise a wide range of
nature and man-made disasters. A summary
of these threats follows:
Tropical Storms) Fires
Storm Surges Lost at
Chemical Spills Environmental
Major Accidents Volcanic
The purpose of
this plan is to define the measures to be taken by the Kosrae State Government
to ensure that effective disaster preparedness; response, relief and recovery
are carried out. As the State Disaster
Preparedness Plan, it aims to accomplish the followings:
§Identify and assign responsibilities for
planning and development of disaster preparedness programs that are designed to
meet requirements at the State & Municipal governments.
§Provide procedures for integration of programs
and response to emergency situations at different levels of government and to
ensure continuity in programs implementation.
§Provides procedures for activating resources of
the State Government during emergencies.
The Governor, after declaring the state of emergency, may request
assistance from the National Government upon his determination that the State’s
resources are not sufficient to cope with the disaster. The National Government’s assistance can be
requested as explained in Part IV, of this plan.
§Provide for procedures to request FEMA or other
available foreign disaster assistance to supplement FSM National Government
assistance to the stricken State.
§Assign coordination of specific disaster-related
programs to particular departments, agencies, and offices with requirements for
development of training and public information programs.
A. The objectives of the Plan are:
To save lives
and minimize damages and loss of property and resources
To ensure appropriate levels of awareness and
preparedness for disasters
To ensure effective disaster preparedness, mitigation,
response, and recovery
To support the efforts to each State & its
Municipal Governments to cope with disaster situations
To ensure continuity of Government
IV. MAJOR COUNTER DISASTER MEASURES
the actions taken to prevent or reduce those adverse effects of disaster or
hazards. Mitigation measures are usually
built-in or regulated into ongoing development projects. For the purpose of this Plan, examples of
mitigation include such measures as land use regulations, environmental
protection regulations, housing vulnerability programs, and agricultural
projects to plant disaster-resistant crops.
Preparedness measures at the State level include:
Planning the utilization of available resources and the
minimization of dependencies upon outside assistance.
Development of appropriate levels of public awareness
& education programs
Development of the department or agency operational
plans (contingency plans) which designates staff members responsible for
Provide training of key personnel designated to
specific functions to ensure successful implementation.
Maintain and update the State Disaster Preparedness
As a necessary
element in the State’s endeavor to prevent or minimize the effects of
disasters, specific declaration are issued to activate response procedures and
to keep the public informed of potential disaster circumstances.
1. Warnings on various
conditions of a disaster are issued by the Governor. Some warnings may come from outside sources
(e.g. typhoon and tsunami) to the National Government before they are relayed
to the Governor of the threatened State.
2. After warning has been
received and the disaster determined imminent, the Governor may execute
necessary response activities ranging from boarding up to evacuation as
3. The Governor may declare a
state of emergency based upon the prevailing disaster situation, and activate
this plan to deeply State resources as warranted.
4. The Governor may request
disaster assistance from the FSM National Government and consequently the U.S.
Federal assistance through the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA),
after he has obligated State resources to respond to the disaster. Requests for foreign disaster assistance must
go through the National Government.
Assistance from the US Government through FEMA may be requested in
accordance with program requirements enumerated in the Annex II, “Guides to
FEMA assistance.” The Governor may
request such assistance only after he has obligated available State resources
constituting a reasonable contribution to the cost of the disaster.
5. Distribution of relief
supplies received from international assistance sources are controlled by the
President and subject to the concurrent authorization with the Governor of the
program usually centers on the regeneration of agricultural production,
reconstruction of housing and infrastructure, and other long-term restoration
efforts directed toward minimizing adverse impact of disasters.
National Government may provide technical, manpower,
supplies, equipment, and funding to the stricken State as authorized by the
The President’s authorize Representative (PAR) ensures
that projects funded by FEMA or any other foreign donor agency are implemented
in accordance with applicable regulations.
The Governor of
the State of Kosrae is responsible for formulation of policies and controls the
implementation of the State Disaster Preparedness Programs, National of
international assistance where it is given.
The Governor’s other responsibilities include:
§Designate a State Disaster Coordinating Officer
§Designate Command Designate stages of warning
§Designate a Disaster Application Center & a
Disaster Field Office
§Mobilize the Emergency Task Force and initiate
necessary property and life-saving measures (evacuations, mass care, etc.).
§Orders damage assessment as soon as feasible and
relay information to FSM President when National and FEMA assistance is
§If disaster is declared, applies for Federal
assistance on behalf of the private non-profit agencies within his jurisdiction
§Designate his representative to work with the
President’s Authorized Representative (PAR) who is the FSM point of contact
(POC) on all disaster related matters. (This designation must be including in this
certification, which goes with his request to the FSM President for the
President’s and FEMA assistance).
2. State Disaster Coordinating Officer (SDCO)
implements tasks allocated by the Governor’s acts as Coordinator of the
Governor’s Command Post and as the Governor’s designated representative.
§Maintain and update the State Preparedness Plan.
§Develop public awareness and training programs
with other departments or agencies and requests funds for such programs.
§Coordinate state sponsored training and public
awareness programs with appropriate departments or agency heads.
§Prepare requests to the National Government and
foreign disaster assistance for submission.
§Ensure the warnings are issued to public when
warning stages are declared by the Governor.
§Perform all other emergency coordination
functions which may be necessitated by the demands of a given disaster or
3. Governor’s Disaster Committee
All department or office
heads constitute the Governor’s Disaster Committee, including this activity
heads co-opted by the Governor to perform special assignments during a
disaster. This Committee serves as an
advisory body to the Governor in the formulation of his policies and the coordination
of the disaster response efforts. This
committee is made up of the following people:
The Governor . . . . Chairman
Cabinet . . . . Members
State DCO . . . . Secretary
4. Disaster Coordination Office
The agency of
the State Government responsible for coordinating the implementation of all
disaster-related matters under the direction of the Governor is the State
Disaster Coordination Office. During
disasters, coordination will be carried out from the designated Command Post
until the Governor issues an “all clear”, whereupon it will revert to its
normal location – the Office of the State DCO.
The counter disaster organization presently consists of the Governor/Lt.
Governor, Governor’s Disaster Committee, State Disaster Coordinating Officer,
and the designated local representative and the emergency task force. The local chief executive represents his
government and others designated.
5. Organizational Chart:
Governor’s Disaster Committee
State Coordinating Officer
VI. OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES
sets policies and provides direction and control of the disaster operation
while the State DCO coordinates operational activities according to the
assigned tasks listed in the Operational Checklists, unless otherwise preempted
by the Governor.
When the Governor declares an Alert (Condition II),
department heads or their designed representatives will convene at the Command
Post to plan appropriate response activities.
The Department Heads report the specific activities
being carried out by their respective departments or offices while the DCO
maintains overall coordination of the operation and provide continuous and
up-to-date briefings to the Governor for his decisions.
of the Governor’s decisions becomes the responsibility of the State DCO.
State DCO through the Municipal representative does coordination of the
disaster response efforts in the municipalities. If National or FEMA assistance is likely, the
local representative will provide reports of ongoing activities and events to
the Governor via the SDCO every 3 hours until an “all clear” is issued.
5. Requests for outside
(foreign) assistance are coordinated by the FSM National Government.
the Governor to the FSM President must begin with the onset and continue every
three (3) hours thereafter until an “all clear” is announced. During the Recovery phase, all reporting
continues until all work is completed and the final audit made.
come from any level of government, depending on the nature of the disaster and
its discovery. However, warnings in
cyclones generally come from the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA), and warnings on tsunamis come from the Tsunami Warning
Center, Honolulu, Hawaii. Any warnings
originating from outside the FSM, is usually directed to the Weather Services
Observatory station located in Kolonia, Pohnpei, which is then relayed to the
Governor of Kosrae for his information and action.
issues the official warning and makes the necessary declarations.
Stages of Warning are issued according to conditions. These conditions are based upon the lead-time
available before the disaster strikes, and are appropriate for threats, which
usually have a slow onset, such as tropical cyclones. Sudden impact disasters, such as plane
crashes, or major fires, will negate these conditions and compel the activation
of this Plan at the Impact Stage.
1. Watch – Condition III. A threat has identified and could affect the
State within 48 to 24 hours, given its current rate of development.
2. Alert – Condition II. The identified threat has been confirmed
to strike within the next 24 to 12 hours, unless it diverts from its present
3. Onset – Condition I. The threat is imminent and will strike
within 12 hours.
4. Impact – The disaster
5. Relief – The immediate
aftermath of a disaster.
communications systems within the State of Kosrae can be commandeered for
warning and emergency operations (as may be warranted by the destruction of
designated facilities and equipment).
The resources of the private sector may be utilized in a similar manner
All facilities and equipment commandeered for emergency operations will be
compensated in accordance with current market rate of leasing such facility or
D. Functions of Departments of Officers
assigned to each department or office is found in the Operational
Checklists. In addition, an Emergency
Operations Model (EOM) depicts a miniature chart of the departmental
assignments and is used for a quick reference in the event of a sudden impact
disaster. The Governor may also call
upon the departments, offices, and/or agencies of the Kosrae State Government
to perform functions in addition to those initially assigned, as the situation
E. Continuity of Government
governmental functioning at all times, elected and appointed officials of the
Kosrae State Government are responsible for developing Contingency Plans
that ensure a line of succession whereby each department, office, or agency
provides measures for safekeeping of vital records, emergency plans and
procedures, utility systems maps, line of succession documents and lists of
regular and auxiliary personnel, codes, statutes, constitutions, ordinances
court records, official proceedings, land deeds, financial records, and others
National documents or archives.
the Kosrae State Government likely to be useful in a disaster or emergency
operation are maintained by each department or office and are filed and updated
with the State DCO.
In the process
of implementing this Plan, there is a need to integrate activities throughout
the State and with the National Government in order to minimize duplication of
efforts and thereby reduce the costs of disasters. It is also important to ensure that across
the whole spectrum of disaster activity, ranging from preparedness to recovery,
the efforts of the State and the National Government are compatible.
Phase of Implementation
1. Phase I – Preparedness
A period of no
active disaster in which preparedness are made for such an eventuality. During this phase, the following activities
need to be carried out;
§Maintain and update this plan
§Develop contingency plan with established
department line of succession
§Develop public education, awareness, and
§Establish and maintain a Command Post
§Identify and inspect potential disaster shelters
for safety reasons
§Provisions of health & sanitation facilities
in identified shelters
§Plan and prepare evacuation known vulnerable
§Establish communication and warning systems
§Monitor development projects
§Provision of emergency back-up systems
§Maintain environmental protection measures
2. Phase II – Warning
a. Watch- Condition III. The following tasks need to be carried out
§Open Command Post
§Alert Governor’s Disaster Committee and other
§Monitor the threat
§Provide warning to appropriate segments of the
public (e.g. small crafts warnings, etc.)
§Tests communications & warning systems
b. Alert – Condition II. Tasks to be performed
§Mobilize Governor’s Disaster Committee at Command
§Issue warnings and notify the general public
§Notify the FSM President
§Evacuate (if necessary)
§Open identified shelters
§Close down schools
§Secure & board up facilities & homes
§Ensure sufficient emergency stock (fuel, etc.)
§Radio station goes on 24 hours operation
§Announce “all clear” if and when appropriate
3. Phase III.
a. Onset – Condition I. Threat is confirmed to strike within 12
hours. Carry out the following:
§Evacuate threatened areas
§Conduct (and transport if possible) people to
§Provide health & sanitation measures
§Establish & announce curfew
§Begin situation reports to the FSM President
– the disaster has struck
§Rescue & initial treatment of victims
c. Relief – The period
immediately after a disaster, the duration of which is to be determined by the
Governor (see Cessation below), during which emergency operations are taken
§Restore essential services
§Conduct and transport people when necessary
§Provide health and sanitation measures
§Provide food & shelter for the needy
4. Phase IV. Recovery
following a disaster is devoted to the rehabilitation of the sick and injured
and rebuilding and reconstruction of damaged or destroyed facilities and other
properties. The following tasks should
be carried out immediately after the completion of the emergency work.
§Submission of requests for National &
§Request for temporary housing assistance
§Establish Disaster Field Office and Disaster
§Assign personnel’s to assist in preparation of
Damage Survey Reports (DSR’s).
§Assign personnel’s to assist in
inspection/verification of damages to private homes & facilities.
§Coordinate recovery and rehabilitation projects
in the state and the municipalities according to State and National Disaster
procedures are activated automatically in the case of a sudden impact disaster;
otherwise the Governor activates them.
A state of
emergency (and emergency operations) ceases when the Governor issues and
Executive Order or Directive to that effect.
No state of emergency shall exceed a period of thirty (30) days unless
authorized by Joint Resolution of the State Legislature. The State Legislature may terminate a state
of emergency at any time by Joint Resolution (PL 7-38).
VIII. REVIEW & ANALYSIS
A. Review and
analysis are important parts of preparedness and therefore necessary components
of this Plan.
a. Each department, office or
agency should review and analyze its own Contingency Plan and revise as
b. Recommended modifications or
changes to the Contingency Plans must be copied to this Plan every time such
changes are approved through review and analysis.
2. Aspect to be covered by review should
§Status of plans and preparedness communications
§Surveys, Assessments and Reporting
§National and International support
§Assessment of public awareness programs
IX. SUPPORT MEASURES
Public Awareness & Training Programs
§Each department, office or agency should
investigate possible steps that can be progressively taken to extend the scope
of the existing limited programs of public education and awareness.
§Training of key personnel is necessary to maintain
program efficiency and ensure successful implementation at all levels of
X. AUTHORIZATION & REFERENCES
A. The Plan is authorized by Public Law 7-38, PL 1-6,
(and other applicable FSM Laws) and with applicable US Federal Assistance
supported and authorized by the US PL 93-288, the Disaster Relief Act of 1974.
B. A list of definitions (Glossary) applicable to this
Plan is contained in Annex A.
This plan has
been reviewed and authorized for implementation by
Rensley A. Sigrah Date
State of Kosrae
STATE OF KOSRAE
The purpose of
this checklist is to provide a quick and easy reference to the actions to be
undertaken by the State Disaster Coordinating Officer and the Department Heads
in the event of an emergency or disaster.
procedures are activated automatically in case of sudden impact disasters or
emergencies (e.g. plane crash). Otherwise the Governor activates them.
3. CONTROL & COORDINATION
§Overall direction of disaster preparedness &
§Coordinator of counter – disaster planning &
implementation State DCO
§Coordination of departmental disaster activities: Department Head
4. DISASTER TASKS (See Departments’
departments & offices not listed should concentrate on securing their own
facilities, equipment and records and the Governor may assign other functions
resources as obligated by the Governor, or by the Department Head in fulfilling
his department’s assigned responsibilities.
(Also see, attached Resources Inventory)
6. CESSATION OF OPERATIONS
operations cease when directed by the Governor.
7. DEBRIEFING & REVIEW
or agency reviews its own operation, immediately following cessation of
operations, and determine the needs for modification of contingency plans,
operational procedures etc., and propose recommendations to the SDCO for
revision of operational checklist, procedures, or the plan.
is to be used in conjunction with the State Disaster Preparedness Plan as an
aid to the required preparations and operations during a given disaster. Each department, or agency is required to
update and maintain its operational checklist to ensure its current status.
provides the direction and specifies the actions to be taken during each
disaster condition in accordance with the provisions of the Kosrae State
Disaster Preparedness Plan. The State
Disaster Coordinating Officer coordinates execution of actions authorized or
assigned to departments of agencies by the Governor.
threats within 48 hours. A time of
preparation and readings for disasters or emergencies).
§Update and maintain State Disaster preparedness
§Ensure that each department’s assigned disaster
functions are current and accurate and that specific responsibilities regarding
line of succession and preservation of vital records are assigned and recorded.
§Coordinate with other department heads the
development of required contingencies, assignment of key staff to emergency
functions, training and education programs for public awareness, and other
duties as assigned.
§Monitor existing disaster – funded projects to
ensure compliance to established timetables, and periodically reports projects
status to the FSM PDC.
§Ensure establishment of communications and
warning systems and conduct periodic testing to ensure efficiency.
§Ensure designation of a Command Post before any
§Coordinate with other departments or agencies
periodic assessment of vulnerability and propose recommendations to rectify
§Work with Municipal Chief executives to
establish a disaster response and operational program in the municipalities.
condition Three – at threat has been identified and could affect the State
within 48 to 24 hours.
§Notifies the Governor as soon as threat is
§Inform department heads and other key personnel
requiring advance notification.
§Monitor the threat and determine disaster
conditions and inform the Governor for his decisions.
§Test communications and warning systems.
§Alert Governor’s Disaster Committee of the
possible activation of the State Disaster Preparedness Plan should condition
two be declared.
§Notify municipal chief executives to take
necessary precautions against the identified threat.
Condition Two – threat may strike within 24 to 12 hours.
§Prepare Governor’s declaration of condition Two
and announce activation of the State Disaster Preparedness Plan.
§Mobilize the Governor’s Disaster Committee.
§Ensure continuous update of disaster related
information to the general public inclusive of instructions on preparation for
§Coordinate with all department heads the
execution of their assigned emergency tasks.
§Initiate communications with FSM and continues
until an “all clear” is issued.
§Coordinate other emergency duties as
§Notify municipal chief executives of the
activation of State Plan and the need to implement appropriate measures.
Condition One – threat is confirmed to strike within 12 hours.
§Monitor disaster and continue coordination of
all ongoing activities and continue reports to the Governor
§Perform operational tasks as directed by the
the disaster has struck.
§Coordinate all emergency activities in
accordance with established priorities.
§Advise the Governor on each department or agency
operations and propose deployment of resources and personnel according to needs
§Continue situation reports to the FSM President.
§Coordinate with the Governor his Disaster
Committee the needs for search & rescue and/or evacuation of stricken
§Maintain communications with municipal offices
to monitor disaster conditions and situation reports.
§Coordinate all emergency operations with the
Governor and his Disaster Committee and establish relief priorities.
§Deploy designated emergency teams to assist
§Prepare the Governor’s request for a combined
damage assessment (FEMA/FSM/STATE) immediately after the disaster.
§Manage all relief activities.
§Notify municipalities of the established relief
priorities and provide guideline on necessary activities.
§Prepare a state of emergency declaration for
§Coordinate arrival of FEMA and FSM staff to
assist in the damage assessment or other needed emergency work.
§In the event of a declaration by the President
of the United States, the SDCO is the contact person for the State, as the
liaison between the State, FSM National Government, and FEMA in all
disaster-related requirements. (See FEMA
Guides for details).
This checklist is to be
used in conjunction with the State Disaster Preparedness Plan as a specific
guideline on the assigned duties during preparedness and disaster operations.
Alert. A condition during which the Governor of the
State warns the people to take precautionary measures in response to a threat
which may strike the State. In the case
of tropical cyclone, this condition is usually issued when the threat is about
12 to 24 hours away.
All clear. When the warning for a threat has been
issued, the Governor needs to announce the all clear to the public if the
Command Post. This is the governor’s Emergency Operations
Center from which he directs emergency operations. A the moment none of the Stets have
facilities built specifically for this purpose, but it is up to the Governor to
designate such a place in case of a disaster and inform the members of the
Disaster Organization accordingly.
Assessment. The process of inspecting,
estimating, and evaluating the extent of damages incurred during a disaster
with specific emphasis on the impact of these damages on the lives of the
Shelters. Shelters which have been
designated by the governor for use by the public in the event of a
disaster. When such shelters have been
designated, it becomes the responsibility of Government to ensure that they are
structurally safe for such purpose and that health and sanitation facilities
are provided during use.
Disaster. Usually a catastrophic happening, which
disrupts day-to-day life patterns and causes suffering among the people of t h
e, affected area. Such a happening is
usually a natural occurrence which becomes a disaster-when it adversely impacts
Organization. The organization of
the State or the National Government responsible for programs of preparedness
and the operations in response to the threat of or the occurrence of a
Drought. A prolonged period of dry weather which
usually result in serious water shortage for people living on small islands
which depend almost entirely on rainwater for their supply.
Earthquake. Distortion and vibrations of the land in an
area caused by slippage and breakage of rocks under the earth which can cause
severe damage to buildings and infrastructure.
Emergency. Any natural of man-made disasters occurring
within a state which may require FSM National or the US Federal Emergency
Assistance to supplement state and municipal efforts to save lives, protect
property and public safety, or to avert or lessen the threat of disaster.
Task Forces. Teams recruited from
Government personnel for their expertise in specific areas to assist in the
disaster operations. These teams’
activities are coordinated by the SDCO under the supervision of their
departmental director or an assigned supervisor.
Epidemic. An outbreak of a contagious disease in a
community. Such occurrence had happened
in the islands in recent times and may happen again. The islands are susceptible to contagious
disease such as cholera, typhoid fever, influenza, etc.
Government. The Government of the
United States of America, or any of its disaster assistance programs
administered by the Federal Emergency
Management Agency (FEMA).
FEMA. The U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency
which is responsible for assistance to disaster areas when the President of the
United States has declared such a place a disaster area. By Compact agreement this assistance from the
United States still exists with the FSM.
Disaster Committee. The committee,
which acts as an advisory body to the Governor during disasters. This committee is usually comprised of the
members of the Governor’s Cabinet.
Hurricane. Common name for tropical cyclone (see
Impact. This is the moment that a disaster strikes
and perhaps still raging. Very little
can be done at this time except to save lives wherever possible.
Disaster Headquarters. The Command
Posts at the Municipality level from which the Local Representatives run
emergency operations. Usually at the
Municipal Office which must be secure from the threat and provisioned with the
needed communication systems to maintain communication with the Governor’s
Command Post during disasters.
Representative. An officer in each
Municipality or Outer-Island designated by the Governor to coordinate disaster
activities for that area under the supervision of the SDCO. If a disaster befalls an area, which has not
had a designated Local Representative, the Local Government’s Chief Executive
automatically becomes the Local Representative.
Disaster. Any natural or man-made
disasters occurring within a state, which in the determination of the Governor,
causes damage of sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant major disaster
assistances from the FSM National Government, US Federal Government, and other
international sources to supplement efforts and available resources of the
Mitigation. Measures taken to lessen or prevent the
effects of a disaster threat to the State.
Such measures may include the passing of building codes to lessen the
effects of major fires, earthquakes and cyclones, the construction of levees to
prevent flooding, public education programs, etc.
Government. The government of any of
the political subdivisions of a state, which are recognized by law as
Disaster. A disaster situation where
the whole of FSM, or the major part of it, is so badly affected by disaster
that most of the nation’s resources, and possibly assistance from outside, are
needed to provide immediate response and relief.
Government. The Government of the
Federated States of Micronesia.
Onset. The stage of alert, which immediately precedes
the impact of a disaster. In the case of
a tropical cyclone, this is usually declared when the cyclone is less than 12
Checklists. Each department of the
State Governments has the responsibility of maintaining operational checklists,
which list in concise form activities, which the department must cover in the
event of a disaster warning through the operations.
Plans. Each department must develop
its own operational plan, which assigns tasks listed in the Operational
Checklists to ensure they are performed.
pronounced rotary circulation, wind speed of 75 miles per hour or more.
When the winds
develop into a cyclone it stands upon the sea or whatever island is in its way
like a whirlwind of Operations.
The activities of the Disaster Organization, which commences with the
onset of a disaster ends with the commencement of recovery efforts.
disasters. To ease coordination and
operations for the Disaster Organization, disasters are broken down in to
sequential phases as follows:
Preparedness, Warning, Operations and Recovery.
Preparedness. Organized efforts specifically designed to
minimize the effects of disasters on the lives of people and ensure timely and
effective response to disasters.
Recovery. The process of restoring a state of normalcy
in the lives of the people or the community who had suffered from a disaster.
Relief. The process of alleviating the conditions of
suffering resulting from a disaster and assisting the victims of disasters who
are unable to help themselves.
Response. The activities undertaken by the Disaster
Organization starting from a “watch” through “recovery” in the event of a
Emergency. A certain emergency or
disaster which exists in an area and has to be dealt with in a manner required
by existing laws or procedures.
Government. Any of the four State
Governments of the Federated States of Micronesia.
Operational Checklist. Chart of all
disaster operational functions assigned to departments, offices, and
agencies. This State checklist provides
a quick reference for specific operational tasks as well as those departments,
offices, and agencies assigned to perform those specific tasks during the
different phases of a given disaster.
Storm Surges. Larger than normal waves which arrive at an
island as a result of a tropical storm or cyclone nearby (maybe two hundred
miles away). Such waves are particularly
dangerous to low islands or coastal areas especially during high tide. If there is a low exasperate the situation.
Disasters. Disasters, which strike
without warning, such as fires, plane crashes, earthquakes, oil spills, etc,
Cyclone. The general term for all
cyclonic wind circulations originating over tropical waters, classified by form
and intensity as “tropical disturbance” – very slight circulatory movement on
the surface, “tropical depression” – some rotary movement with winds up to 40
miles per hour, “tropical storm” – distinct rotary circulation with wind speed
of 40 to 70 miles per hour, and “tropical cyclone” (typhoon or hurricane) –
wind speed of more that 75 mile per hour.
Typhoon. Common name for tropical cyclone (see
Warning. Some threats can be identified before they
strike, such as tropical cyclones and tsunamis.
The Governor of the State can warn the general public when the State is
threatened through the radio broadcast station, the Police and any other means
available to him. Warnings to the public
usually start with an “alert” which is issued when the threat is 12 to 24 hours
away in the case of a cyclone. The alert
is followed by “onset” when the thereat is eminent and will strike within 12
Watch. This is a condition is usually declared when
a threat ha been identified, and may possible affect the area.
The islands and
atolls of the Federated States of Micronesia are subject to at all times of the
year the destructions of natural disaster such as tropical cyclones (typhoons
and storms), tsunamis (seismic sea waves), floods, fires, environmental
pollution, possibly earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and other natural and
frequently occurring type of disasters in the FSM are the tropical cyclones and
are considered the major threat to the islands and the people of the Federated
States of Micronesia. Tropical cyclones
often sweep through the islands with strong destructive winds, generating high
seas, torrential rains, and wave action and flooding. “Tropical cyclone” is the general term for
all winds, which move, in a circular fashion originating over tropical
waters. The circular nature of these
winds is usually not perceptible to the laymen, but readily noticeable and
easily recorded and tracked by meteorological technicians using highly
technical equipment specifically developed for this purpose. As used in this area, tropical cyclone are
classified into four different types as indicted below:
Disturbance: rotary circulation of
the wind is slight or absent at the surface of the ocean but sometimes better
developed aloft, no strong winds. This
is common in the tropics.
Depression: some rotary circulation at
the surface, and the winds may reach a speed of 39 miles per hour.
Storm: distinct rotary circulation
at the surface, and the winds are strongly developing and may reach wind speeds
of 40 to 70 miles an hour.
Typhoons/Hurricanes: Strong awful violence. On the average, its great spiral covers an
area some 100 miles in diameter with winds greater that 175 miles per hour, and
spreads gale-force winds greater than 175 miles per hour, and spread gale-force
winds (40 mph or greater) over a 400 miles diameter area.
At lower levels,
near sea level, where the cyclone is most intense, winds on the rim of the
storm follow a wide pattern, like the slower currents around the edge of a
whirlpool; and, the center of the vortex, the “eye” The outer rim of the storm
has light winds, perhaps not more than 30 miles per hour; within 30 miles of
the center, winds may have velocities exceeding 150 miles per hour – and more
than 200 per hour in the most memorable ones.
toward the low pressure in the warm, comparatively calm core. There, converging air is whirled upward by
convection to an altitude of about 40,000 feet.
The thick, heavy cloud wall releasing heavy rain and enormous quantities
of heat energy marks this spiral. It has
been estimated that the condensation heat energy release by a cyclone in one
day often is the equivalent of that released by fusion of 400 220 – megaton
At the center,
surrounded by a band in which the strong vertical circulation is greatest, is
the core – the “eye” of the cyclone. On the
average, the diameter of the eye is about 14 miles, although diameters of 25
miles are not unusual. When the eye of a
cyclone comes across islands, the wind speed decreases rapidly to about 15
miles per hour. When the eye passes the
wind will increase suddenly to the maximum, but this time it will come from a
different direction because of the circular nature of the cyclone.
The speed with
which the whole cyclone travels across the ocean varies greatly, but is
comparatively sloe, about the same speed a ship would travel. Its direction is also unpredictable and
erratic. Cyclones have been known to
loop back and hit the same place twice.
The life span of cyclones varies but has been averaged out to about 10
Heavy rainfall continuous
over a period of several hours or days quickly creates disaster conditions in
areas prone to landslide and in lowlands with poor drainage. River flooding is a threat in high islands
with rivers. All islands are susceptible
to shoreline flooding and water damage resulting from torrential rains
particularly those accompanying a tropical cyclone.
High islands are
susceptible to landslides especially on hillsides. Sitting houses on hillsides should be subject
to preventive measures and standardized building codes.
crust, making up the continents and oceans of the world, floats on the hot and
liquid material, which make up the inner layer of the planet. The crust has broken up into huge segments
(million of square miles) called tectonic plates which drift slowly (a few
inches a year) in different directions – where these plates meet, one would
slip under the other and turn into molten material under the crust, lines of
weakness called geological faults are created.
build-up and sudden release of strain within masses of rock along the fault
Line and the breaking of rocks under strain produce earthquakes. Fault movement may be horizontal, vertical or
some combination of the two. Vibrations
may cause earth distortions and widespread damage to buildings and other
structures many miles from the epicenter (point of the earth’s surface beneath
which the first rupture on the fault occurred).
It is rare that
an earthquake of any consequence occurs without after-shocks, which tend to be
smaller and smaller. However, there is
no ironclad rule, which guarantees that aftershocks will be smaller. Sometimes a large shock will be followed by
another large shock.
(Seismic Sea Wave)
movements such as earthquakes, landslides or volcanic explosions cause
tsunamis. Not all submarine earth
movements cause tsunamis however, an often it is not known whether a tsunami
was generated by such a movement until it strikes somewhere.
a tsunami travels outward from the epicenter in all directions at a speed,
which may reach 600 miles per hour. In
deep ocean areas the wave may be only a few feet high from the through to the
crest but its foot (height) would be trailing the ocean floor. A ship would not notice such a wave at sea or
from an airplane. As the wave approaches
shallow water it decreases in speed but increase rapidly in height. Fortunately for many of our islands, we don’t
have the gradual build-up of the ocean floor, which is typical of continental
landmasses, to cause the rising of these waves to their full fury. However, we can still be affected by these
waves and at times their effects may be devastating.
The first wave
is not always the most severe. The
danger may last for several hours and sometimes several days elapse before the
sea returns to normal. A wave may have
small effect in one locality and be destructive in another.
grassland fires in less populated areas of the high islands, backed by strong,
seasonal prevailing winds may get out of control. Limited access to these areas would add to
the disaster possibility. Fires starting
in congested urban area could result in a major disaster should it become
When there is a
tropical cyclone in the vicinity of an island (two hundred miles or so), the
waves generated by the storm may hit the island in the form of large waves
(fifteen feet and up) – storm surges.
This condition is sometimes aggravated by tow conditions: (a) high tide, and (b) a low-pressure belt,
which may exist over the island. The
high tide will, of course, raise the level of the sea around the island. The low pressure will also raise the level of
the ocean. These conditions together may
cause extensive damage to low lying islands and in some instances have caused
the total inundation of coral atolls.
(e.g. Majuro island in 1980)
instances of epidemics have occurred in the FSM in recent years, one of the
most memorable was the cholera outbreak in Truk. The Health Services departments in the States
are in constant surveillance for these occurrences, and are equipped to handle
them. In the event of large-scale
outbreaks and the States find themselves unable to cope, they can seek
assistance through the National Government, to request the assistance of the
United States Communicable Disaster Center in Atlanta, Georgia or the
assistance of the United Nations World Health Organization (WHO).
which Constitute an emergency or a disaster would most likely be those
involving overwhelming losses both in terms of human lives as well as property
losses, such a airplane crashes and ship collisions. Most of the airfield approaches in the FSM
are over water and the runaways are not too long either. Logistic support requires heavy and
continuing ship traffic, which thereby increases the possibility of ship
increase in shipping and air traffic compounded by the expanded appetite for imported
products, the environment is rapidly becoming cluttered with the discarded
residues from this influx of modern innovations. Water and air pollution are no longer just
potential treats but realities to be confronted and resolved before it is too late. Dumping of bilge water (mixture of petroleum
by-products) around the vicinity of docks throughout the FSM has caused
significant loss of marine lives (including coral reefs) in those areas. There are agencies within the State
Governments who are responsible for protecting and keeping our environment
The Office of
the FSM President is responsible for the administration of all disaster-related
Federal programs implemented in the Federated States of Micronesia. In order to facilitate the management of
disaster assistance when the President of the United States declares a “major
disaster” or “emergency” in the FSM, the President of FSM appoints his disaster
coordinator to act on
his behalf as the Governor’s
Authorized Representative (GAR), *and also as the State.
Disaster Coordinator (PDC) coordinates the disaster-related activities Federal
Coordinating Office (FCO), who is appointed by the Associate Director, State
&Local, Programs & Support, FEMA, coordinates all the disaster
assistance activities in the declared area, including those of the State (FSM
National Government), the recipient of the Federal disaster.
Note: Information contained herein is drawn from
other official documents to provide guidance.
These data should not be considered a replacement or substitute for
applicable laws, rules, regulations, agreements, circulars and other available
step-by-step procedures and explanations to facilitate the obtaining, utilizing,
and management of disaster assistance available under the Disaster Relief Act
of 1974 (US PL 93-288).
The FSM National
Government is eligible to receive PL 93-288 disaster assistance from the United
States Government, through the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) *
whenever the President of the United States approves FSM’s request for
assistance and declares that a “major disaster” or an “emergency” exist in the
Federated States of Micronesia and that such assistance is warranted.
Management Agency (FEMA) is the agency of the Federal Government managing all
matters pertaining to disasters and emergencies resulting from either natural
or man-made cause, including defense of the civilian population during
peacetime as well as times or war. The
agency’s national office is located in Washington, D.C., with ten regional
offices dispersed all over the country.
The program regional offices dispersed all over the country. FEMA Region IX administers the program of
disaster assistance that is extended to the Federated States of Micronesia,
with offices located in the Presidio of San Francisco, CA.
for obtaining disaster assistance are provided under Part IV, Impact/Immediate
Response, in the form of checklists for the Governor and the FSM PDC.
Exception: Procedures and details concerning the
Individual and Family Grant Program (IFGP) and the Temporary Housing Assistance
Program (THAP) are to be found in the Administrative plan for these two
individual assistance programs. Either
or both of these programs may be authorized when there is a “major disaster”
When a disaster
is identified, certain functions and activities need to be carried out to
endure appropriate and adequate preparation and to expedite processing of
of the Threatened State
1. Receives weather and/or
disaster-related information and monitors the same.
2. Provides warning to the
local populace in accordance with the State Disaster Preparedness Plan as the
situation requires warning, and,
3. Provides the FSM
President with all disaster-related information available and the activities he
B. The FSM President’s Disaster Coordinator
1. Receives and analyzes all
disaster-related information available, including those received from the
2. Briefs the President and
the Vice President, as necessary; and,
3. Notifies the Director of
the Disaster Assistance Program Region IX, Federated Emergency Management
Agency, of the current status of the threat the keeps him abreast of the
Functions and activities needed to be carried out
after a disaster strikes:
1. Proclaims that a
disaster/emergency exists in the area.
2. Initiate necessary
property and lifesaving operations.
3. Orders mass care
operations (emergency shelters, deeding and medical attention, if necessary)
4. Relays all
disaster-related information to the FSM President (if assistance from the
National Government and/or international aid sources are required), as soon as
communications becomes available.
5. Opens designated
Disaster Application Center (DAC).
Requests the FSM President for the National
Government’s assistance in arranging for a combined FEMA/State/Local Damage
7. Sends summary Damage
Assessment Reports to the PDC every six hours until Damage Assessment is
8. Appoints the FSM PDC as
his agent if there is a US Presidential Declaration.
9. Applies for assistance
on behalf of eligible private, nonprofit organizations within his jurisdiction
when there is declaration and efforts of the National Government and the FSM
State stricken by disaster with the
B. FSM PDC
1. Analyzes available
disaster-related data, recommends as request for declaration – if warranted –
and prepares required documents for the President’s signature.
2. Requests US Federal
assistance through FEMA Region IX.
3. Supervises and
coordinates disaster assistance received from outside sources.
4. Assumes the role of the
Governor’s Authorized Representative (GAAR) and the State Coordinating Officer
(SCO) when there is a US Presidential Declaration and coordinates all FSM
disaster efforts with the Federal Coordinating Officer (FCO).
5. Prepares for the
President’s signature, a request for IFGP, if the Governor of the stricken
State specifically expressed requirement for it.
6. Applies to FEMA for
advances/reimbursements as required after a declaration.
7. Assures adequate
record-keeping of disaster-related projects, Federal reimbursements, and
8. Arranges for final
inspections and FSM & Federal Audits.
C DAMAGE ASSESSMENT
and rapid collection of general information on the nature, severity, location
and cost estimates of damages resulting from a disaster. The assessment is only an estimate, and does
not provide a basis for work to be done or for reimbursement, and should not be
confused with the detailed Damage Survey Reports (DSR) which are made after a
Presidential declaration of an “emergency” or “major disaster” to determine the
scope of work and the cost of repair or
a. to provide systematic
procedures to collect, collate, and report assessment of disaster damage.
b. assist officials of the
affected government to determine existing needs and allocate available
c. assist the FSM PDC to
determine what support requirements are or will be available, including
possible assistance from agencies outside of the FSM.
d. provide the FSM President
with data to determine whether he should seek a US Presidential Declaration.
e. in event of a
declaration, the damage assessment will be used as a guide to the type and
quantities of disaster assistance to be provided by participating agencies.
a. The Governor of the
affected State has the responsibility for damage assessment and timely
reporting the FSM President.
b. The Governor appoints a
Damage Assessment Officer who supervises the collection and collation of data
on sustained damages.
c. Damage Assessment
Team: To provide sufficient coverage,
damage assessment should include the following:
§Public Works personnel for assessment in the
§Public Works personnel augmented by trained
assessors from other departments or agencies for damage in private sector.
§Agriculture & Marine Resources officials
report on the damages sustained to agriculture and aquaculture projects.
§Health Services Officials provides casualty and
other required reports on injuries.
§Public & other trained private assessors to
assess damages in the business sector.
Note: These assessors should be designated in
advance and trained before the actual disaster takes place.
3. Federal Involvement: Damage Assessment & Disaster Assistance.
a. Immediately following a
disaster, the Governor of the stricken State calls for assessment of damages
sustained from the disaster. He sends
his request to the FSM President for a combined damage assessment. Upon approval by the Regional Director, a group
of Federal assessors will join t he State & Local assessors and prepare a
Preliminary Damage Assessment (PDA).
b. The FSM President
submits his request to the President of the United States through FEMA Region
IX Director using the PDA as the justification for his request. (Such request should be completed as early as
possible following a disaster).
c. The President of the
United States reviews the request and issues his declaration as either
“emergency” or “major disaster” depending upon the severity and magnitude of
the disaster. The President’s
declaration will activate specific programs of assistance from the Federal
Emergency Management Agency under the provisions of the US PL 93-288, the
V. FEDERAL/FSM COORDINATION
declaration of a disaster area by the President of the United States, the
Federal Coordinating Office and his staff will come to the disaster area an
establish a Disaster Field Office (DFO).
The staff will include a Public Assistance Officer (PAO) and an Individual
Assistance Officer (IAO) as well as a cadre of Federal engineers and inspectors
who will work with FSM and State designated officials to complete detailed
Damage Survey Reports on each area or
Disaster Coordinator along with other designated personnel from the FSM
National Government will visit the disaster area to work with the Federal and
the Local work force to ensure a speedy recovery from the impact of the
ASSISTANCE AFTER A PRESIDENTIAL DECLARATION
costs incurred in emergencies or in major disaster operations are eligible for
reimbursement. The following paragraphs
described those specific items, which are clearly eligible or ineligible.
Wages, & Administrative Expenses
wages (including overtime) of regular and extra employees of the applicant
directly engaged in the performance of eligible disaster work, except as noted
below. However, only gross salaries and
wages will be reimbursed and the applicant will be responsible for all other
salaries of regularly employed policemen and firemen and other employees whose
duties do not change because of the disaster, such as levee patrollers, pumping
plant operations, weather services personnel, and building inspectors.
expenses including salaries, wages and expenses of the National, State, and
Local officials who are responsible for directing regular governmental
wages, fees and expenses of individuals or firms while engaged in the
preparation and processing of project applicants, claim for payment, and
supporting documentation, including costs of damage estimates.
ineligible costs includes related legal fees, office supplies and equipment,
rent, telephone and telegraph expenses, interest charges, employer’s share of
payroll additives over and above the employee’s gross pay.
2. Costs for Equipment, Supplies &
materials and supplies consumed in eligible disaster work, including those
procured by direct purchase or taken from applicant’s stock.
Rental costs of
privately owned equipment used in performing eligible disaster work, provided
rental rates are comparable to the going rates for the same or similar
equipment in the costs incurred in the operation of applicant equipment in
eligible disaster work. Such costs will
be based on the FEMA Schedule of Approved Equipment Rates of a Public
Entity. A schedule may be obtained from
the FEMA FCO for the usual types of equipment used during disaster
operations. This schedule has been developed
from historical records for costs of owning and operating equipment throughout
the country. The schedule covers all
costs eligible under PL 93-288 for ownership and operation of publicly owned
equipment except labor costs of operators.
In includes depreciation, all repairs, fuel lubricants, tires and other
operating costs of a similar nature. The
schedule does not cover insurance, equipment shelters, overhead and similar
nature. The schedule does not cover
insurance, equipment shelter, overhead and administrative costs. If an applicant uses equipment, which is not
listed on the above schedule, he should submit the make, model, horsepower and
original cost of the equipment to the Regional Director who will furbish the
transportation equipment utilized by police and other employees whose duties do
not change because of the disaster are not eligible.
Costs of hand
tools (shovels, handsaws, hammers, etc.), personal equipment and protective
clothing used in performing eligible work.
insurance, storage, overhead and administrative costs.
3. Costs for Work Performed by Contract
costs for work performed by private contractors on eligible projects contracted
for in accordance with National or State status. If competitive bidding procedures were not followed,
justification will be required as part of the documentation accompanying the
under contracts based on cost plus percentage of cost basis, except when
approved by the Department. Costs
incurred under contracts based o contingency clauses. No Contract entered into by an applicant for
disaster work or services under the Act shall contain a provision, which makes
the payment for such work contingent upon reimbursement under the Act.
under contracts performed by contractors whose names appear on the FEMA
Consolidated List of Debarred, Suspended and Ineligible Contractors will not be
reimbursed unless it has been determined by the Associate Director, on an
individual contract basis, that it is in the best interest of the Government.
4. Costs for Work Performed by Arrangement
between Government Agencies
Costs for work
performed under arrangements between States of the FSM, but limited to the
direct costs of the performing State Government, which would be eligible if the
applicant had performed the work.
Appropriate work supervision and record-keeping by the applicant and the
performing State Government are necessary to identify eligible work and to
Costs for work
performed under arrangements between the FSM National Government and the State
Government and a Federal Agency, except where approved by the Regional
Director, FEMA, Region IX.
5. Costs for Lands, Easements and Rights
incurred for lands, easements or rights of way are ineligible, except in
unusual circumstances involving relocation of a facility when approved by the
Associate Director, State & Local, Programs & Support, FEMA.
6. Costs for Work
Performed by Service Fraternal and other similar Organizations, which do not
normally contract their services for disaster relief.
out-of-pocket costs for equipment, materials and supplies used or consumed in
the performance of eligible work. This
could include the FEMA rate for operating group member’s equipment.
salaries of member personnel engaged in disaster relief activities.
7. Prison Labor
costs to an eligible applicant of prison labor performing eligible disaster
work, including the amount paid the prisoners in including the amount paid the
prisoners in accordance with rates established prior to the disaster, and the
cost of transportation.
Costs of food,
lodging and guards. Also, any costs for
prison labor utilized by a contractor.
8. Costs for Vector Control & Fixed
are not a normal recurring item on an annual basis. When such costs are a normal recurring item,
excess of such costs (including FEMA equipment rates) over the average cost for
the same period of time during the previous three years will be considered
eligible. Items 1 thru 7 above. For permanently installed pumping equipment,
the applicant may be required by the FEMA Regional Director, to submit
additional information on the pumping operation.
Any repairs of
fixed pumping equipment required as a result of pumping operations.
9. Damage Survey Reports (DSRs)
earlier in this text, a DSR must be completed for each area and facility which
is damaged and for which reimbursement is anticipated. DSR is the basic accounting document, which
when completed must be signed by the Federal and Applicant officials involved
and forwarded to the PDC for inclusion in the Project Application.
10. Project Application (PA)
Disaster Coordinator, as agent for the applicant, submits a PA for emergency
and permanent work. Along with it, he
submits the documents, which appoints his as agent. (See FEMA/STATE agreements)
Supplements to add
additional line items to the PA must comply with the same timetable applicable
to the PA for which the supplement is submitted. Supplemental requests to increase the cost of
work must be submitted as soon as possible.
If, in performing the work, it is determined that t he cost of work in a
line item will exceed the amount approved in the PA, the applicant official
assigned management responsibility must provide the FSM PDC data as
1. The exact work performed
or to be performed.
2. The cost originally
3. The actual cost of each
project with a list of materials
4. The reason for the
11. Specific Programs
programs of assistance, available after a Presidential declaration, are listed
under sections of Individual & Public Assistance.
A. Individual assistance
such as mass care operations to save lives and property are considered to be
the responsibility of the Local Government (FSM State) with jurisdiction over
the stricken area and must begin as soon as t he need is identified. The Federal authorities involved will look to
the Local government, assisted by the International Red Cross or other
Voluntary Organizations, to conduct individual assistance operations and will
assist only if it is determined that
B. When there is a “major
disaster” or “emergency” declaration, certain individual assistance programs
are available to provide assistance.
Such programs as the Temporary Housing Assistance/Minimal Repair
Program, and the Individual & Family Grant Program can be requested to
provide assistance. Assistance for home
loans may be available from the Small Business Administration.
1. Specifics on the
THAP/MRP and the IFG can be found in the Administrative Plans for these
A. Public Assistance under “Emergency”
1. Federal technical
assistance and/or advisory personnel are available to assist a disaster
stricken government to perform essential community services, which includes
warning of further risks and hazards, public information, assistance in health
and safety programs, technical advice on management, control, and reduction of
immediate threat to public health and safety.
2. Federal agencies may
make Federal equipment, supplies, personnel, and other resources (other than
extension of credit) available to a disaster stricken government. This includes the lending or donating of
surplus Federal equipment and supplies.
3. FEMA may provide funds
for emergency debris clearance limited to that necessary to save lives,
protect, and maintain public safety.
Such assistance includes clearing debris from roads and facilities as
necessary for the performance of emergency tasks and for the restoration of
4. FEMA may provide funds
for a feeding program for the population of a stricken area when the means of
growing and harvesting have been destroyed or temporarily disrupted (a
5. FEMA may provide funds
for restoration of emergency repairs to essential utilities and facilities as
necessary to insure their continued operation.
For example: emergency
bridgework, road repairs and detours, utility tie-ins with neighboring
utilities and emergency building repairs.
6. FEMA may provide
temporary communications during or in anticipation of a declared emergency and
may make these communications available to an affected jurisdiction until
essential emergency communications needs are met.
7. FEMA may provide funds
for the cost of emergency public transportation to government offices, supply
centers, stores, post offices, schools, major employment centers, and such
other places as may be necessary to enable the community to resume its normal
pattern of life in the affected area.
B. Public Assistance under a “Major
1. In addition to all
assistance available under an “emergency” declaration, FEMA may provide funds
to help restore, reconstruct or replace damaged facilities including those
under construction at the time of disaster.
2. FEMA may also make
contributions to help private, non-profit educational, utility, emergency,
medical, and custodial facilities (including those for the aged and disabled)
damaged or destroyed by a “major disaster”.
3. The US PL 93-288, under
which this assistance is available, authorizes loans to any local government,
which has suffered a substantial loss of tax, and other revenues as a result of
a major disaster occurred.
4. FEMA may provide
additional assistance for economic recovery after the period of emergency aid
and replacement of essential facilities and services to and declared “major
disaster” area which has suffered a disruption of the economy of sufficient
a. assistance in planning
and development to replace expertise lost in the disaster.
b. Continued coordination of
assistance available under Federal aid programs; and,
c. Continued assistance
towards the restoration of an employment base.
5. Additional assistance
may also be provided for disaster recover, planning, grants and loans for
public works and development facilities, loan guaranteed and technical
assistance. The FSM President in
consultation with the Governor of a stricken State will determine the need for
such additional assistance.
C. Other Assistance Available After
Emergency or Major Disaster Declaration.
1. Direct Federal
Assistance – is usually requested under unusual circumstances where the work
required is beyond the capability of the stricken government to do or contract
and is therefore requested to be performed by Federal personnel.
a. No financial
transactions are necessary for this type of assistance. The PDC receives or prepares the certified
request and submit to FEMA no later than 30 days following an emergency
declaration or 90 days following a major disaster declaration.
b. The applicant is
responsible to assist the performing Federal agencies in all support and local
logistical matters in the same manner, as would a private owner in his
relationship to a performing contractor.
These matters include the securing of local building permits and rights
of entry, control of traffic in the interest of safety and public welfare, and
all other matters relating to compliance with local building or construction
laws and ordinances.
c. The applicant must
accept the design before work begins and must signify acceptance of the
completed work at the time of the joint final inspection. The applicant provides, without cost to the
Federal government, all land easements and rights of way necessary to
accomplishment of the approved work and must agree to indemnify the Federal
government against any claims arising from the work.
d. The Governor for the
stricken area may through the FSM PDC, any Federal equipment that may be
required. He is responsible for managing
and distributing any equipment received.
D. Types of Grants
All grants are
made only after the applicant performs the work approved in the Project
Application and supplements.
1. Categorical grant
commonly used when the approved amount of the PA is $25,000 or more. It is used for debris clearance, and other
emergency work, and also permanent repairs or replacements on public facilities
including those facilities under construction, as well as private non-profit
requested if the applicant wishes to build in a different location, or a large
and more elaborate replacement. The
amount of the grant-in-lieu, if approved, will be that estimated by FEMA to
repair or replace the pre-disaster structure or facility. The structure can be relocated into a different
area but no land costs are allowed to be reimbursed.
3. Flexible Funding
A type of
grant, which equals 90% of the Federal estimate of the total cost of repairing
or replacing, all damaged facilities owned by the applicant within the disaster
area. If granted, the money used to
repair or replace certain new facilities, which the applicant determines to be
necessary to meet his need for governmental functions or services in the
disaster area. The FSM PDC and the
Director of the Disaster Assistance Program, Region IX, FEMA must approve
projects to be completed under flexible funding.
4. Small Projects
A type of grant, which the total cost, is less than $25,000 dollars.
E. Time Limitations for Project Completion
limitations are measured from the date of declaration and will terminate as
1. Major Disaster declaration
Completion Deadline Deadline
Debris Clearance 30
Emergency Measures 30
Permanent Restoration (ASAP) 18
Note: Director, Disaster Assistance Program, Region
IX, may require a completion schedule for his approval.
2. Emergency Declaration
a. Work should begin immediately
after the disaster and must be completed in 30 days.
F. Categories of Eligible Work
Category A. Debris
B. Protective Measures
C. Road Systems
D. Water Control Facilities
E. Public Buildings &
F. Public Utilities
G. Facilities Under
H. Private Non-Profit
I. Others (not in any
G. Managing Accounts for Public Assistance
1. When a disaster occurs
in the FSM, the Budget Officer, FSM National Government establishes a disaster
account, e.g. FXXXXXXXX, per the request of t he FSM PDC. This action is reported to the stricken State
by telex and the required FSM Allotment Form.
IF IFGP is authorized, a separate account is set up exclusively for this
2. IF Federal funds are to
be available, the FSM PDC working with the designated Project Manager, compiles
and publishes a Chart of Accounts wherein disaster related projects are
assigned numbers. All documents relating
to a particular project will be identified by the number assigned to the
project, e.g. FXXXXXXXX – 101, FXXXXXXXX- 102, etc. Each Category is assigned a different
classification number, e.g. Category A Debris.
The FSM PDC
ensures that Federal funds are advanced in accordance with FEMA regulations to
meet expenses of the disaster. Request
for Advance is submitted to and coordinated with the Director, DAP, FEMA,
Region IX, and is made payable to the appropriate disaster account. When the request for advance is approved, the
funds are wire-transferred into the established accounts and then released to
the stricken State for obligation, through allotments from the FSM Budget
3. Funds Status Reports and Project Status
Reports cued to the items of the Chart of Accounts, are prepared by the
affected State Government Disaster Project Manager and forwarded to the FSM PDC
who reports to the Federal Grants Section.
4. When all projects are completed,
inspected and audited to the total FEMA approved sum less the sum of advances,
and less the sum of then State share of the costs, the balance of which will be
paid by FEMA to the FSM Budget Office for appropriate.
5. In the event that the request for
assistance is denied, or that the project is not eligible for assistance, then
the Governor of the affected State must decide which of his operation accounts
will absorb the charges which have been made to the “disaster” account(s) and
communicate his decision to the Secretary of Finance, who will then journal
voucher all charges to the designated accounts of that State.
H. Record Keeping
systematic and accurate record keeping will result in full reimbursement of all
FEMA approved costs on eligible projects.
Without proper records however, reimbursements will not be made.
B. Damage Survey Reports
1. As mentioned earlier, the DSR prepared by Federal and Local (FSM
State) personnel who visit and survey each project site, is basic to record
keeping. It contains the best possible
estimate of the scope and cost of work to be done to rectify the damage. It identifies the specific work items for
which reimbursement can be expected.
2. The affected FSM State must
designate a Project Manager to coordinate the work required to maintain a file
on each DSR and from the outset accumulate all documents relating to a
particular DSR in its own file. The Project
Manager should prepare the required reports (see below) and submit to the PDC
to ensure periodic follow-up and maintenance of all projects on current status.
a. As an example, if work
is contracted out, the file on that project should contain copies of request to
bid, the bid documents, the contract which is let, invoices submitted by the
contractor, warrants authorizing check issuances, and checks issued payments.
b. If the work is done by the personnel of
the affected government (force account), the file should contain extracts of
payroll (time and attendance reports) with cross reference to the originals, a
schedule of the equipment used on a particular job, invoices, warrants,
purchase orders, job orders, requisitions, journal vouchers, and checks issued
to pay for materials used on the job.
Since labor, equipment, and materials must be
documented, it is recommended that a Daily Activity Report (DAR) for each DSR
be maintained as well as a Summary of Daily Activities Reports (SDAR) to
provide current status of the work on each DSR.
A final inspection is usually needed whenever the claim amount of the
FEMA reimbursement exceeds $10,000 dollars or by the expressed wishes of the
keeping will insure early identification of cost overruns. Early reports to the FSM PDC concerning any
cost overruns will enable him to file timely supplemental requests to cover the
costs of such overruns. Reports for cost
overruns should contain a full explanation will be useful in facilitating the
Site audits are
to be conducted by the FSM National & State governments to ensure the
proper use of approved funding. The
combined teams of Federal auditor, and the FSM Internal Auditor and his staff
will conduct a final audit.